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Wednesday, September 22, 2021

TypeScript vs JavaScript

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JavaScript is a dynamically typed scripting language commonly used to add interactive and visually appealing elements to a static webpage. JavaScript source code can be executed without any communication with the server. Not long ago, JavaScript was only known as a client-side programming language, but now it can even run on the server-side by using environments such as Node.js. JavaScript has come a long way since it first came onto the scene. Now it is even used in Game and Mobile app development.

On the other hand, TypeScript is an object-oriented programming language that is a syntactical superset of JavaScript and is used for developing large-scale applications. Any code written in JavaScript can be converted into TypeScript by changing the file extension from .js to .ts. Unlike JavaScript, the TypeScript code cannot run directly in a browser; It is first compiled and converted into a JavaScript file.

Why TypeScript?

JavaScript was originally introduced as a client-side programming language in 1995 and was called Mocha. Later on, developers also started using it as a server-side programming language, but its code became more complex and dense as JavaScript grew. JavaScript was also unable to fulfill the role of an object-oriented programming language because of its complex code. These drawbacks prevented JavaScript from succeeding at the enterprise level. So TypeScript (a superset of JavaScript) was developed to cover these drawbacks.

Differences between JavaScript and TypeScript:

TypeScript JavaScript
A typeScript is an object-oriented programming language. JavaScript is a text-based scripting language.
It has Static typing. It has Dynamic typing.
It supports modules and has an interface. It does not support modules and does not have an interface.
TypeScript source code needs to be compiled. There is no need to compile JavaScript code.
It was Developed at Microsoft by Andres Hejlsberg. It was developed at Netscape Corp. by Brenden Eich.
TypeScript files have .ts or .tsx file extensions. JavaScript files have .js file extensions.
It is mostly used on the client-side. It can be used on both server/back-end and client-side/front-end.

Pros and Cons of TypeScript:

Some well-Known advantages and disadvantages of Typescript are given below:

Pros

  • TypeScript catches and displays errors at compilation time, whereas in JavaScript, errors are highlighted at run time.
  • Typescript supports static typing, which makes it easier to catch errors in the code.
  • TypeScript can run in any environment/browser, device, or operating system.
  • TypeScript is compatible with JavaScript libraries.

Cons

  • TypeScript is harder to learn and requires previous scripting experience.
  • TypeScript code needs to be converted into JavaScript before running in a browser; thus, it takes more time to run.
  • TypeScript is relatively new thus has a smaller community.

Pros and Cons of JavaScript:

Some well-Known advantages and disadvantages of JavaScript are given below:

Pros:

  • JavaScript code can run directly on a browser.
  • JavaScript can be used for both the front-end/client and back-end/server-side.
  • JavaScript is easier to learn than Typescript.
  • JavaScript developers have more freedom as its code offers great flexibility.
  • JavaScript has a large community of developers.

Cons:

  • Errors in JavaScript are highlighted at run time.
  • JavaScript supports dynamic typing, which can cause a lot of runtime errors.

Conclusion

Both TypeScript and JavaScript have their advantages and disadvantages. TypeScript code needs to be transpiled and translated into JavaScript before running on a browser, whereas JavaScript can directly run on a browser. TypeScript really shines at enterprise and large-scale projects, whereas JavaScript is more suitable for small-scale projects. Large enterprises cannot afford to have run-time errors.

As mentioned previously, TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript and is harder to learn, so one should only learn TypeScript once they have a complete grasp over JavaScript.

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